Top 15 Most Popular Social Networking Sites and Apps [August 2018]

top most popular social networking sites

Last updated: August 2, 2018

Here’s the graph of top 15 social networking sites in the world. As you can see Facebook is leading the pack with a huge margin in front of Youtube. Then there’s another gap of similar size to Instagram on the third place.

NEW: Instagram has now 1 billion users. That is the answer to the question, what will be the next big thing.

Social network

Monthly Active Users

Facebook2,230,000,000
YouTube1,900,000,000
Instagram1,000,000,000
Qzone563,000,000
Weibo376,000,000
Twitter336,000,000
Reddit330,000,000
Pinterest200,000,000
Ask.fm160,000,000
Tumblr115,000,000
Flickr112,000,000
Google+111,000,000
LinkedIn106,000,000
VK97,000,000
Odnoklassniki 71,000,000
Meetup35,300,000

top most popular social networking sites

Here is the most up to date list of monthly active users for the top social networking sites. If you want the numbers just scroll down. First, you’ll find top social networking sites followed by top 10 apps.

Always fresh data: just bookmark this page and come back whenever you need new data. The findings are based on latest original research, and we update the numbers as soon as the new data comes in.
free social media marketing courses

11 Free Social Media Marketing Courses to Boost Your Skills Now

Free social media marketing courses to boost your social media marketing skills. Select the ones that give you the most value, even if you are a beginner.

Take a look at the free courses

Maybe you know the top 3 or even the top 5 social networking sites, but do you know what’s happening behind them? We maintain the list of top 15 most popular social networking worldwide. New social media sites are coming and going, but these have stood the test of time. We update this list of social media sites with new data as it becomes available. The data in this list combines global and US social media visitors. The actual numbers of monthly visitors are gathered from different sites. We bring you the latest data out there.

Take a look at the visual size comparison below.

books content marketing

11 Great Content Marketing Books on Writing

Great content, that moves people to act or makes them sit up and take notice, is what I’m really after. There are a lot of excellent how-to books out there that have done wonders for my skills.

Take a look at the reading list

  • Facebook has updated its monthly active user numbers to 2.23 billion in June.
  • Youtube measures logged-in users, and is getting closer and closer to Facebook with 1.9 billion.
  • Twitter reported 336 million active monthly users in its last quarterly report. Twitter also managed to post its first-ever quarterly profit.
  • VK reached 97 million monthly active users
  • Reddit adds users and displays 300 million users on their website.

Find out how to build your willpower!

shortstack

Top Social Networking Sites

Facebook jumped by 100 million monthly active users from 2.13 billion in December 2017 to 2.23 billion as of June 30, 2018. The rate of growth seems to continue at 15 million active users per month. So, by the end of the year we should see 2.35 billion Facebook monthly active users. Here’s the post where Zuckerberg announced the news about reaching the 2 billion milestone:

Zuckerberg post 2 billion Facebook monthly active users

Visual size comparison

Again, on this graph you can see the three large circles dominating the rest. Only Twitter and Reddit battling it out for the fourth space seem to come close to the top 3. However, in Russia VK has a huge penetration, dominating the Russian speaking world as Facebook does globally.

top social networking sites bubbles

Social Media Marketing 2018, PPC on 10+ Platforms.

Social Media Marketing courseLearn how to market via Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram, YouTube, Facebook, Google and more advertising platforms! This must have course has a 4.7 rating out of 1,226 ratings with more than 12 thousand students enrolled.

Take a look at the social media marketing course

world map of social networks 2018World Map of Social Networks 2017

Take a look at the visualization showing the most popular social networks around the world. The world map of social networks 2017 is based on recent traffic data (January 2017). Check out the world map of social networks…

And wait, we havyoutube-logoe news for you! There is some indication that a new social network might take the to spot. YouTube might be taking over Facebook in unique monthly visitors:

YouTube2 – Compete Rank | 2 – Alexa Rank
Facebook3 – Compete Rank | 3 – Alexa Rank

Youtube has added 300 million people to its logged-in audience in less than a year. I believe this trend to continue and Youtube might reach 2 billion people within next 10 months.

If you want to find out more about how powerful video is predicted to become, check out this infographic!

You can also take a look at our interactive graph
Top 10 Social Networking Sites by Market Share of Visits [USA]

How to work get marketing results from social newtorks? Check out our step-by-step process to create your influencer marketing campaigns.

Top Social Networking Apps

With the growing popularity of mobile social networking, we have also created a list of 10 leading social apps globally. These apps are in fierce competition with the main social sites already!

The picture here is a bit different if we look at the brand names. WhatsApp and Messenger are in a close race for the top spot. But both of these most popular social media apps are owned by Facebook so the competition may not be as fierce as between completely separate companies. Then there’s a lot of Asian apps and then on the sixth spot is Instagram, again owned by Facebook.

top most popular social networking apps

  • WhatsApp added another 200 million monthly active users reaching 1.5 billion. Facebook Messenger promptly added another 100 million users and now they are behind WhatsApp with 1.3 billion monthly active users. Both of these mobile platforms are owned by Facebook.
  • WeChat took the 3rd position as it passed QQ and Instagram with more than 189 million monthly active users as QQ continues to slide.

Social Networking App

Monthly Active Users

WhatsApp (owned by Facebook)1,500,000,000
Messenger (owned by Facebook)1,300,000,000
WeChat989,000,000
Instagram (owned by Facebook)800,000,000
QQ Chat783,000,000
QZone652,000,000
Viber249,000,000
LINE218,000,000
Snapchat200,000,000
YY122,000,000

Social networking apps are going to grow even bigger as people adopt them into their everyday lives. Here we have listed the mobile-first social media platforms. But the Facebook mobile app would dominate this list with 1.37 billion monthly active users. As smartphones’ adoption continues, the share of the desktop use of social media platforms will fall .

For a list of social media apps that are smaller check List of virtual communities with more than 100 million active users from Wikipedia.

______________________________
Photo credits: Pixabay, Visual Hunt

Social Media Marketing 2018, PPC on 10+ Platforms.

Social Media Marketing courseLearn how to market via Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram, YouTube, Facebook, Google and more advertising platforms! This must have course has a 4.7 rating out of 1,226 ratings with more than 12 thousand students enrolled.

Take a look at the social media marketing course

Priit Kallas

Priit is the founder and CEO of DreamGrow Digital, an internet marketing and social media company. With his 20+ years internet marketing experience he is Helping companies to understand and use the digital marketing to reach their target audiences. He's also writing on a personal growth website Fixwillpower.com. He has spoken at hundreds of seminars and conferences on different aspects of internet marketing. Priit is also the organizer of Digital Elite Camp, a leading traffic and conversion event.

156 Responses

  1. Blogger says:

    Thanks for this great listing,mate.
    Blogr.org is one more social place that should definitely go there.

  2. Jessica says:

    Nowadays, creators has started making different social media platform and all have the same purpose. Like Snapchat, Deviantart and Instagram. however, I’m a regular user of Youtube and I work there for my website Black Leather Jacket

  3. durgaprasad says:

    thank you for updates with detailed statistics

  4. Durga Prasad says:

    Very helpful list. Thank you for sharing this list. Very important in formulating our social media campaigns.

  5. Sabbirrahman says:

    Which SocialNetwork Can Find the Most Visitor in Asia Now?This post was very beautiful and informative. I learned a lot.

  6. Cindy Scothorne says:

    Hello, Thank you for the great information. I am writing for permission to use some parts of your data collection for my final paper for my Informal Logic class at Ashford University. It is an argumentative paper on ‘Is Social Media harmful to relationships?’. Your article will be cited and acknowledged following APA standards.
    Thank you for the consideration.
    Cindy

  7. Emily collins says:

    I think this is the great list and thank for sharing

  8. Nicole Gustas says:

    What’s the logic here of having Instagram on both lists while Snapchat is only on the “mobile app” list despite having more MAUs than most networks on the “social networks” list?

    I guess I understand that Instagram photos are available to look at on the web, but it’s definitely a primarily mobile app.

  9. Julsie says:

    Well I think the options are pretty sad. Facebook that’s pretty bad on ethics but user friendly or Twitter which isn’t user friendly at all. I’ll just pass on being sociable completely I think. Save the bs.Its a shame that I can’t safely keep in touch with friends OS.

  10. linda says:

    I like use whatsapp more ,it is easy communicate

  11. Avanexa Technologies says:

    Thanks for sharing!
    http://avanexa.com/services/digital-marketing/

  12. komal says:

    Yes, Facebook is still on the top and I think it will stay on top forever. Well nice post mate, Well-written.

  13. zane says:

    I really like this site and the things it has on it include tinder next time

  14. Fitriani Razak says:

    Useful info.. Here in Indonesia, we don’t really know about Qzone and Weibo 😀

  15. Sasha Andreev says:

    Wow, you’ve done a great analysis. But what do you think about some people who want to develop their own social media app – could they have a new “social media star” or they would lose their money?
    Here is one interesting article about this: https://www.quora.com/unanswered/How-do-I-develop-a-social-media-app

    • Priit Kallas says:

      It’s mostly down to luck. Like in the casino, most will lose their money

  16. Lynkpal says:

    Extremely great informative blog for social marketers….thanks for valuable information

  17. Victoria says:

    Wth… all of these kids have sc and its so unpopular comparing to the others … how ?

    • Leanne says:

      It is only a certain age group; mostly North America I believe; there are more people global of an older age that use all the other formats. Instagram has taken the lead with many younger people 18-25.

    • Priit Kallas says:

      Instagram Stories have quickly outpaced the original Snapchat story. 11 out of 12 influencers now post more stories to Instagram than to Snapchat. It’s easy to see why: people watch 70% of Instagram stories with the volume on. Since the stories update average user time spent on Instagram has increased from 15 minutes to 28 minutes per day (Mediakix).

  18. Carolina says:

    Hi. Great work here! I’m thinking of using some of your graphics, on a class about Innovation in Social Media that will take place in Madrid, Spain. You will be fully acknowledge as the source. Can you please confirm if this is ok with you? Many thanks and looking forward to continue Reading your analysis.

  19. Keith Parsels says:

    Dropping facebook! to big, to censore, and to liberal.

  20. kayla champagne says:

    yay

  21. kayla champagne says:

    hey thanks for info

  22. Lynkpal says:

    Best list of top social networking websites. Also join Lynkpal the free general social networking platform for all… lynkpal.com

  23. Avanexa Technologies says:

    Keep blogging ! very interesting & thoughtful

  24. Bang Kutu says:

    Hi! I’m writing a blog post about the most popular social networking app in 2018 and I would like to use information from this post along with the Top 15 Most Popular Social Networking Sites graphic in the blog post. We would of course give credit and link back to this post. Feel free to check out our blog here:
    https://jempingankutu.blogspot.com/2017/08/aplikasi-media-sosial-terpopuler.html

    Thanks alot^^

  25. Chantae feneck and Olivia edwards says:

    social media is absolutely amazing. love ittttt! – Olivia Edwards and Chantae Feneck

  26. Phoebe S says:

    Hello! I’m writing a blog post for the digital marketing agency I work for about social media, and I would like to use information from this post along with the Top 15 Most Popular Social Networking Sites graphic in the blog post. We would of course give credit and link back to this post. Feel free to check out our blog here: https://www.bluemagnetinteractive.com/blog/ and let me know!

  27. VITS says:

    thanks for amazing sharing !

  28. idontwanttosayit says:

    I’m surprised that snapchat isn’t really that popular knowing that most kids these days use it everyday

  29. Nate Sanden says:

    Nice list and thanks for updating it. So important for social media marketers/managers.

    • anon says:

      snapchat is becoming less and less used for “public social” & more for “private social” like one to one, not one to all. This makes it a less than perfect platform, not to mention the quality of customer that is on there.

  30. Skateboard Guide says:

    Thanks for the stats of popular social media sites, Now I know on which to work 😀

  31. WhatsApp 2018 says:

    the most famous whatsapp in the year 2018

  32. jina says:

    Thanks for Sharing Amazing Social Media Sites and info about them.

  33. jhon says:

    wow I am surprised to see the position of Instagram. It may come on top of position. Keep sharing such kind of info.thanks.

  34. Sanjay Dhawan says:

    Priit thanks for the great list

  35. Todd Watts says:

    Thank for the list. Not surprised by the stats though. Would love to see a new social media platform breakout like Facebook did.

  36. Eddi Santana says:

    Very good content. Thank you!

  37. Dr. Ogbonna E. C says:

    Good Morning
    I write to request formally for your permission to use your data and figure of that of 2016 in an article titled “Digital Citizenship in Africa’s fractured social order”. The source is adequately acknowledged and referenced. I remain thankful for your provisions, while awaiting your speedy feedback.

  38. Maria says:

    Hello there! I would like to see a review about eClincher. Is what I’m starting to use right now, and so far it looks like a great tool. It combines Hootsuite, Sprout and Buffer functionalities, it’s quite a great tool. I was hoping to get your thoughts on it. I’ll stay tuned!

  39. moviesonline.mn says:

    Thanks for your list 🙂

  40. James Wilson says:

    Really interesting statistics. To be honest at the rate Instagram is growing it wouldn’t surprise me if it has similar numbers as Facebook by the end of next year…

  41. Luke says:

    How about his one? http://www.danelton.com/

  42. Chris says:

    What about KakaoTalk? 50 million users
    https://www.statista.com/statistics/278846/kakaotalk-monthly-active-users-mau/

  43. Gotam says:

    These are the best Social networking sites that you can use for all kind of purpose like meet up & for business purpose as well.

  44. WhatsApp 2018 says:

    Thank you for sharing this list. Very important in formulating our social media

  45. Arief Munandar says:

    Not much different; as same as 2016. I think I would like to see most popular of 50+ site 🙂 but sure, this list is good 🙂

  46. Mandy says:

    Great insight! I use WeChat on a regular basis to connect with my family and friends because it’s very popular in China.

  47. Jon Murphy says:

    Hi,
    Thx for the info…..very useful. However, am I blind or where on the map are the 2nd & 3rd largest colors for Instgram & Youtube? Difficult to see them if there, the lite blue and orange.
    Also, sooo much of social media is being used for political propagandizing & pushing political interests – especially on fb – that it’s turned me off, temporarily. Is there a vehicle on these platforms that allows one to only get notifications on specific topics, say if I was to use it for biz marketing, only seeing those posts but have the ability to pull up ALL other posts, if want to? Lastly, can the comment section come first before having to scroll down on all 90 odd comments -i. e. is there a way to ‘fast forward’ thru them when one wishes to just make a comment?
    I appreciate you and what you are doing!
    Best,
    Jon Murphy

  48. Dmitriy says:

    Hi, everybody!
    I want to share with you interesting information on this topic. I’m sure that here you will find a lot of new for yourself: https://mlsdev.com/blog/124-best-new-apps-of-2017
    I think this can be useful for you)

  49. Bill says:

    Where is LinkedIn in these rateings…can’t believe it dosen’t have a share…believe they have been ranking around #7 pretty consistently.

  50. Notcy says:

    Many thanks, Pritt,
    An excellent list of popular social networking sites.

    Regards from NotthinghamC

  51. chloe jeffery says:

    where is musical.ly??

    • Priit Kallas says:

      Thanks for asking. musical.ly is a bit below top10 with 40M MAU https://techcrunch.com/2016/12/06/musically-techcrunch-disrupt-london/

  52. Vikas Pandey says:

    Best list of social media sites and social media apps i had ever seen..

  53. Slyman says:

    Good work. Wat abt telegram application/chat

  54. eman says:

    Can anyone recommend a scheduling tool for Instagram? any suggestion?

  55. zozothemes says:

    Thanks for Sharing Amazing Social Media Sites

  56. Muthukrishnan says:

    Hi, Priit thanks for sharing an awesome article about Social networking sites. Keep sharing

  57. Emily says:

    Thanks for sharing the information but these website are normal to use for some one who is in digital marketing business. Is there any more social media platform rather than this.

  58. anna says:

    In your opinion, what will be occur on the social media for future years?

    • Pete Kallas says:

      I don’t see Facebook disappearing any time soon with 2 billion monthly users.

  59. Aamir Saleem says:

    It is increasingly becoming important for small business, as well as big business to be active on these social media platforms. Until recently, we were focusing mainly on Google+, Facebook and Twitter, but I understand there is a need to be live on all platforms available at our disposal today. Thank you for posting this list. Was really helpful.

  60. Sabrina L. Gaulin says:

    I appreciate the work that you’ve done to provide this wealth of information. I want to thank you for making the extra effort to update the information as well! This is my first time on your site but I know I’ll be back.

    I have a presentation report to complete for my professor. I’d like to use this information and possibly the graphics. Do I have your permission to use the information for my presentation/report?

  61. Dallas says:

    It’s very helpful list and thanks for the list..

  62. Atlanta says:

    Really good information shared with us..

  63. Vyshnavi kacham says:

    I want social networking websites and not social media sites..they both are different I suppose..

  64. Olalekan Ajia says:

    I am giving an alumni lecture in South West Nigeria to Secondary School students on “Impact of Social Media on Youth Education” in July and request your permission to use your data. Can I? Source will be duly acknowledged.

  65. Mike Lee says:

    Interesting statistics and thanks for presenting them in such a visually easy way. The graphs really make
    it simple to understand the impact of each social media platform.

    I do have to say that I was surprised to see the power of YouTube. I know it is big, but I always figured it would come next to Twitter or at least somewhere close by. Really tells us a lot about the world we live in doesn’t it.

  66. Kristie says:

    Thanks! Really enjoyed reading it!

  67. Jake says:

    Great list and i thought Google+ have more than 111,000,000 monthly visitors

  68. Leanreads says:

    Very interesting , most of Chinese use we-chat and seldom people use whatsapp

  69. Techmagseven says:

    You have missed out some important websites like:
    www.buddyzer.com
    www.xing.com

  70. Aditi Aggarwal says:

    thanks for sharing great social media list with us

  71. Laila Rahimi says:

    Thanks for share social networking list.

  72. palak bhatti says:

    wow thanks for sharing

  73. paparao says:

    Hey Really thanks for sharing useful information…

  74. Ruchika Goyal says:

    really good list, thanks for sharing

  75. Garrett Suzak says:

    I’ve been looking for the numbers behind each platform – thanks for sharing!

  76. Kate says:

    Thanks for visualising the stats in a really easy to follow format!

  77. James says:

    I’d love to use some of the figures in this list to support a blog post I’m writing for my company – if we cite Dreamgrow as the source and share the URL, would this be okay?

  78. Chris C says:

    What about Snapchat and Smule (Sing!)?

  79. meeting wall says:

    Nice list and i have created account in almost sites. Thank you very much.

  80. oluwa baker says:

    Thanks for sharing

  81. David says:

    Great list for me. Thank you.

  82. Methy Bossy says:

    Thanks for this states and letting us know the channels 🙂

  83. Nauman says:

    nice information about social media apps my favourite is Instagram but where is the WhatsApp

  84. Adam Nyhan says:

    Thank you.

  85. Shiva Jay says:

    Thanks for sharing the most popular and important Social Networking Websites list.

  86. Booking Croatia says:

    The best one is Instagram, for me and my business (vacation rentals in Croatia and tourism in Croatia generally). After that possibly it could be Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and Pinterest.

    I just don’t see why and how to use other networks. It isn’t easy to multitask and especially when you realize almost no one cares (even if you have 1.000+ followers). And, after all, almost everyone are on these few popular networks, so there’s no need to be on all networks.

    Other networks should be only for person-to-person, not every network should be for marketing.

  87. Cat Turner says:

    Great list! I’ve not heard of YY before, and I thought Snapchat would be much higher!

  88. Sanjeev Kumar says:

    I think this is a great list with details statistics. Thanks for sharing.

  89. babu says:

    Only 15 but top 15 and awesome for work awesome for my site and finally thanks to Priit Kallas .

  90. kingprezz says:

    thanks for this dope list we appreciate it

  91. Debarati says:

    Thank you for sharing this list. This will help several content marketers to recognize the best platform for sharing their articles. Also, it gives an insight into what the viewers exactly demand. Each social site is of a different kind. Thus the rate of success of a site gives an information about how to design audience catering strategies.

  92. B. Maynze says:

    There’s a few social media sites on this list i didn’t even know existed! Such as VK And Classmates.

    Do you know if any of these are good for Internet Marketing purposes? I assume the Classmates is a place you go to find long lost classmates. But I just don’t think it would be the best for advertising purposes.

  93. Camila says:

    Hey! This research are global or only of USA?

  94. Pavlo Plakhotia says:

    Thanks for interesting information!
    It’s real useful.

  95. Yahya says:

    @ Chris, please can you avail me more information on sweetalk? I have checked online but I could not lay my hands on any information about the new platform. I really need such platform for my upcoming business.

  96. buddyzer says:

    Great list & your stats are very useful.

  97. willpastons says:

    Thanks for sharing this great post.

  98. Museos CDMX says:

    Very helpful list.
    Leading social media sites

  99. Lotus Innovation says:

    Many thanks Pritt, an excellent guide to social networking, and thank you very much for the Apps.
    Greetings from Alicante, Spain.
    David Cánovas

  100. Graham says:

    Great post, I appreciate you for sharing these insights with us!

  101. ModernTechnolab says:

    Hello Priit, I’m appreciated with your post, here you share very informative and useful social networking sites list. Great article, Thanks for sharing.

  102. buddyzer says:

    These are the great sites. But you have missed some sites like,
    pinterest.com
    buddyzer.com

  103. George Kuhn says:

    Thanks for sharing, I agree with most of the list. The power of Facebook remains a real thing. Although we read a lot about the growth in Snapchat, it’s mostly in the under 34 audience with little buying power. Monthly active users and daily active users of Facebook continue to grow.

  104. Kiran says:

    Great List. YouTube is my best choice.

  105. Prashant says:

    Thanks for the list, appriciate the efforts you have put on it.

  106. Megha says:

    I would like to add one social networking website as Kodetalk

  107. Phoenix-Strippers says:

    Great List Thanks!

  108. Mohit Patil says:

    Thanks for sharing this list. I appreciate your efforts.

  109. Jessica Power says:

    Wow, I love the graphs and images, they really show how incredibly powerful some of the top Social Media Sites are! Thank you for sharing 🙂

  110. chain says:

    Great list! used to believe that Tumblr is much popular than Ask.fm before.

  111. deepika says:

    Great List helpful for all thanks for sharing !!!

  112. Chris says:

    There are lots of social apps now, and sweetalk is a new discovery. For a long time, I have searched and tried different apps and most of the time, left disappointed and frustrated, until one day by accident, the sweetalk comes into my world. And here I would like to share with you all my feelings and experiences about this mobile app. It is probably the best free transnational social tool with the function of instant translation, supporting online translation in 30 different languages and can make me learn the foreign language easily during the chat. My English is ok, so I would like to choose to send messages to the people whom I am interested in instead of my mother tongue for the purpose of improving my English better while talking. And there are a lot of lads and gals there from all walks of life around the globe(later the screenshot will be pasted). You don’t need to pay money for the VPN service, which is really fantastic for those who are eager to make friends from abroad and learn foreign language as well without the extra trouble. Of course, you can talk with the friends from your own country and if you cannot speak English well or those you want to send messages to fail to speak English, then here comes another feature of sweetalk, that is the instant translation of sweetalk. And it is foolproof to use. All right, all of these are written during the work, a little busy now and I would end this introduction of sweetalk with some screenshots, if you like it, maybe you can give it try.

  113. AppSquadz says:

    Thanks for share social networking list and chart.

  114. Amelia says:

    Thank you for posting these leading social networking sites

  115. zozothemes says:

    Thanks for such a great list..

  116. H.Chuku Lee says:

    New to social network planning and find your list extremely useful! Thanks…

  117. Ingrid Lantigua says:

    Thank you

  118. Ingrid Lantigua says:

    Thank you

  119. mano rocks says:

    Thank you for posting these leading social media sites

  120. Catwoman says:

    really good information for our project

  121. Virtual Coworker says:

    Very helpful list. 🙂 Thank you for sharing this list. Very important in formulating our social media campaigns.

  122. Kerrie Foster says:

    First of all, thanks for sharing this list. It’s really useful, but it would be great to supplement it with some kind of statistics regarding the audience who is using each of these social networks. This statistics could be valuable for different kind of marketers, bloggers or business owners because with such statistics it would be possible to plan a strategy for business in different niches, like e-commerce, paperhelp online, any kind of services, or use it for the purpose of self-promotions for bloggers/website owners.

  123. Joseph says:

    I have one social media site suggestion : http://www.bragshare.com

  124. Dwight Hewitt says:

    New growing fun African Social Network check out Yahsuh Social Network

  125. Ceechrison says:

    Thanks for such a great list.

  126. Jonathan says:

    Thank you for great list and updates with statistics

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.